But first a bit more on Galileo:
Galileo's laws of Motion:
Aside from his numerous inventions, Galileo also laid down the first accurate laws of motion for masses. Galileo measured that all bodies accelerate at the same rate regardless of their size or mass.
Key among his investigations are:
Descartes' mechanical philosophy was to completely revolutionize science, and thus have far-reaching religious implications. The organic world view of Aristotelianism had been constructed in terms of sympathies, correspondences, purposes and the notion of 'form' as distinct from 'matter'. This was to be replaced with a vastly contrasting mechanical view:
One of the most dangerous implications of Descartes' mechanical universe is that it raises sensitive questions about God's relationship to nature
What is the dangerous implication here?
As mechanical philosophy gained support in Descartes' native France, so did moves towards a centralised Government control. Descartes' was quick to draw a parallel between the role of Ruler and Creator,
Historical Perspective Here
Descartes' belief in the existence of a rational human soul is based on the principle of the indivisibility of the human ego and underpinned by an unquestioning acceptance of the fundamental beliefs in one's own existence and the existence of God.
For Descartes the human body and the human mind were discrete entities. The human soul, unlike the mechanical world, was something that could not be broken down
One of the most challenging attacks on this aspect of Descartes' system was that if mind and matter are so radically different, how do they interact? Descartes' reaction to this criticism was that the pineal gland in humans formed a point of interaction between body and soul.
The inadequacy of this explanation was highlighted by the discovery that the pineal gland is also present in dogs, while Descartes had preserved the rational soul for only the human species.
the world is a Machine, but we must not forget that there is a Mechanic and that He designed the Machine for purposes which we might try to understand and that He is always present to supervise and maintain it
Summary of the Mechanical Philosophy:
2) God originally created the world by putting matter into motion according to certain laws; time took care of the rest; everything is matter in motion.
3) Only two real or primary substances in the universe
b) mind (res cogitans)-- non-extended and immaterial; endowed in each of us by God, is what makes us individuals, (much like a rational soul);
4) Cartesian dualism mind and matter completely separated Mind is rational, matter is inert, lifeless, passive spirituality of the Earth completely removed now!
5) Nature is only this lifeless matter in motion; What we call "life" is merely an epiphenomenon of this matter in motion; it is not intrinsic to nature. We can call things "living," but what we really mean is that their parts are so disposed as to behave automatically in accord to physical laws of necessity; e.g. The Clockwork Universe
6) Humans distinct from Nature: Only man is endowed with mind, could act freely, but only as a mind in
an automaton; animals do not have minds or reason; they are nothing more than elaborately contrived
machines or automatons
1. He was one of the most creative
geniuses the world has ever seen and to many people the greatest scientist who
Newton's Explanation of Kepler's Laws
Newton expanded on the work of Galileo to better define the relationship between energy and motion. In particular, he developed the following concepts:
A corollary to Newton's ideas was the so called Clockwork Universe model. A concept that states that the total momentum of the Universe is conserved, interactions redistribute the momentum, but the total never changes. In this model, God only starts the clock (initial cause), then it runs by itself for the rest of time.
Newton's laws of motion:
An orbit is the balance between inertial and gravitational forces. That is, the earth is continually falling toward the sun, but inertia also wants the earth to keep moving in a straight line. When these two forces are in balance a stable orbit results:
Newton's development of the underlying cause of planetary motion, gravity, completed the solar system model begun by the Babylonians and early Greeks. The mathematical formulation of Newton's dynamic model of the solar system became the science of celestial mechanics, the greatest of the deterministic sciences.