The Clockwork Universe

The Mechanical/Clockwork Universe

But first a bit more on Galileo:

Galileo's laws of Motion:

Aside from his numerous inventions, Galileo also laid down the first accurate laws of motion for masses. Galileo measured that all bodies accelerate at the same rate regardless of their size or mass.

Key among his investigations are:


Descartes' mechanical philosophy was to completely revolutionize science, and thus have far-reaching religious implications. The organic world view of Aristotelianism had been constructed in terms of sympathies, correspondences, purposes and the notion of 'form' as distinct from 'matter'. This was to be replaced with a vastly contrasting mechanical view:

One of the most dangerous implications of Descartes' mechanical universe is that it raises sensitive questions about God's relationship to nature

What is the dangerous implication here?

As mechanical philosophy gained support in Descartes' native France, so did moves towards a centralised Government control. Descartes' was quick to draw a parallel between the role of Ruler and Creator,

Historical Perspective Here

Descartes' belief in the existence of a rational human soul is based on the principle of the indivisibility of the human ego and underpinned by an unquestioning acceptance of the fundamental beliefs in one's own existence and the existence of God.

For Descartes the human body and the human mind were discrete entities. The human soul, unlike the mechanical world, was something that could not be broken down

One of the most challenging attacks on this aspect of Descartes' system was that if mind and matter are so radically different, how do they interact? Descartes' reaction to this criticism was that the pineal gland in humans formed a point of interaction between body and soul.

The inadequacy of this explanation was highlighted by the discovery that the pineal gland is also present in dogs, while Descartes had preserved the rational soul for only the human species.

the world is a Machine, but we must not forget that there is a Mechanic and that He designed the Machine for purposes which we might try to understand and that He is always present to supervise and maintain it

Universality!

Summary of the Mechanical Philosophy: