Energy Generation and Flow

This is ultimately limited by some basic physics, some of which we understand (Thermodyanmics) and some of which we don't (Chaos).

Even though a system may appear to be very simple, the behavior of that system might be chaotic. The elements of this theory are hard to describe but some neutrally buoyant helium balloons floating around class today can serve as an example.

In Class Chaos Demo

Helium balloons and a demonstration of the principles of chaos:

So even though the helium balloon is a simple system, its motion and its interaction with other elements is chaotic.

Chaos seems to exist in a variety of natural systems to some extent or another


You can not subvert or change these laws:

The Zeroth Law (0): Systems are in equilibrium when they are at the same temperature.

Modelling Thermodynamic Equilibrium: (

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The First Law (1): Energy is Conserved in a closed system:

The Second Law (2): The Law of Entropy:

To decrease local entropy requires work (energy).

Second Law applied to Power Plants

More on Thermodynamics

History of the Second Law

More on the Second Law

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