Review for the Second Midterm

This exam covers the material from the April 29 -- May 24 Lectures

What to really know and what are the key concepts?

Galaxies and Supernova

Formation of the Earth:

Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere

Formation of Life in the Oceans:

Nine Steps: ( Know the timeline )

  1. Chemical synthesis of organic molecules --> monomers
  2. Concentration of monomers to facilitiate the formation of polymers
  3. trial and error combination of polymers until DNA is discovered. Microwave background --> uiverse is filled with photons at some characteristic temparture
  4. Multiplying population for bacteria initially feeds off each other through fermentation process
  5. Anerobic photosynthesis presents the first advantageous alternative to cells getting energy through fermentation
  6. Chlorophyll evolves to more efficiently harness the energy from UV photons --> this leads to areobic photosynthesis with O2 as a waste product
  7. O2 given off in the ocean no harmful to unprotected DNA. Fortunately dissolved Iron in the ocean scavanges the O2 to make FeO2 which settles out to the ocean floor
  8. Gradually over 1 billion years or so prokaryotic cells evolve into eukaryotic cells in which the DNA is in the cell nucleus. O2 is used as a catalyst for rapid cell division (mitosis) leading to the formation of multi-cellular creaters.
  9. Eventaully all the FeO2 settles out and the O2 now can go into the earth's atmosphere which allows for the formation of the ozone layer

    Life On the Land:

    • 700 million years ago species begin to migrate from the Sea to the Land
    • Land is an unstable ecosystem on long timescales

      • Plate Tectonics --> volcanoes and earthquakes; continental drift and disruption of migration patterns
      • Climatological catastropher --> Big Ice Ages
      • Mass Extinctions --> 2/3 of all species extinct. Affects both ocean and land life.

    • Slow evolution of relative intelligence in response to environmental stimulation.
    • Species diversification aids the development of intelligence
    • Fossil record and encyphlization level
    • Is there intelligent life on the Earth?
    • How do we define intelligence?
    • Grid Patterns 'R Us.

    return ___________________________________________________________________

    The Electronic Universe Project